Sustainability Report
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Water and effluents


The availability of water quantity and quality is essential for our operations. We use water directly for our oil, gas and derivatives production and processing units; for steam generation; refrigeration; human consumption; among others. As a result, practically all of our activities generate domestic and industrial effluents, such as produced water.


Therefore, we undertake efforts to continuously improve the management of water resources and effluents, considering our value of respect for the life and integrity of our facilities. 


We believe that this subject is very relevant and strategic for the sustainability of our businesses both upstream and mid/downstream, whether in operations on land or in an offshore environment. 



Management of water resources and effluents

We use several tools for the management of water resources and effluents, the results of which are monitored by senior management. We develop process standards and specific technical guidelines, which establish requirements that must be observed and deployed by all our business areas and serve as a reference for our other companies. We also updated our Sustainability Commitment on water security to a 40% reduction in our freshwater withdrawals by 2030 (percentage of reduction calculated compared to the 2021 base year, updating the previously used base year (2018). Between 2018 and 2021, we reduced our withdrawal by 17%). 


  FRESH WATER WITHDRAWAL (consolidated in megaliters)



As a form of external assessment of our water management, we annually participate in the evaluation process of the Dow Jones Sustainability™ World Index (DJSI World) and CDP Water Security. Within this aspect, in 2022, we obtained the highest score in the DJSI World in the criterion “Water-Related Risks” for the fourth consecutive year, and we also stood out in the criterion of “Operational Eco-efficiency”. At CDP Water Security, we achieved the A- (Leadership) rating for the second consecutive year. Such acknowledgments reinforce the quality of our management in this area.  


Water as a shared resource


We withdraw water from surface sources (rivers, lakes, etc.), underground sources (phreatic or artesian wells), receive water from third parties (public utilities or other companies), and generate produced water when we extract oil and gas from their formations. 

In Brazil, the maximum limits for fresh water withdrawal from the environment are established by public bodies responsible for the management of water resources, and consider hydrological criteria and the multiple human and ecological uses of water within a hydrographic basin. It is illegal to withdraw more water than authorized by the competent body. We also continuously invest in assessment of the impacts of our activities, observing protected and sensitive areas mapped in the regions influenced by our units, based on a specific and standardized internal process for this purpose. In 2022, we did not identify significant quantitative or qualitative impacts on water sources resulting from our direct water withdrawal processes.

The main types of disposal include industrial effluents (generated in the most varied activities of the oil and gas industry), sanitary effluents (in significantly lower amounts) and discarded produced water (main effluent from the oil production process). 

The discharged effluents were previously treated to meet the quality standards for discharge established in the environmental legislation. In 2022, we did not identify any significant quantitative or qualitative impacts on the water bodies where our effluents are discharged.



Fresh water use and reuse

During 2022, we withdrew 122,167 megaliters of fresh water for our operational and administrative activities, 19% below our target (maximum limit) of 151,700 megaliters.





A significant part of our investments in rationalizing the water use has been directed towards developing reuse projects. Among the benefits achieved, we obtained a reduction in our global needs for “new water” withdrawal. 

In 2022, the total volume of reuse was 50,700 megaliters, which corresponds to 29.3% of our total fresh water demand. This reused volume would be enough to supply, for example, a city of approximately 1 million inhabitants for one year. Based on these reuse actions, we estimate an annual savings of approximately BRL 16 million in water withdrawal costs.

Total water and effluent disposal

Our total water/effluents disposal in 2022 can be seen in the table below:

TOTAL WATER/EFFLUENT DISPOSAL1 (consolidated data in megaliters)


All areas

Water/effluent disposal by destination

1. for surface water


2. for underground water bodies2


3. to the sea


4. to third parties (total)


                (4.a) for third party reuse


Total water/effluent disposal

         (1) + (2) + (3) + (4)



1 Including disposal of cooling water.

2 In order to be in line with the definition of the CDP Water Security questionnaire, the injected water (or produced water reinjected) in the oil and gas reservoirs for secondary recovery purposes is considered underground water disposal. If we don’t consider injected/reinjected water, the number would be 2,917 megaliters.


The total value of water and effluent discharge was 2,797,500 megaliters, where 20,656 megaliters (0.7%) were in water stressed areas.


Produced Water

We manage our offshore produced water discharges in accordance with CONAMA Resolution 393/2007, which is the Brazilian regulation that provides for the continuous disposal of production water on offshore platforms. In this resolution, the daily and monthly limits for the disposal of Oil and Grease Content (TOG) are described, which correspond to 42 mg/L and 29 mg/L, respectively.

In 2022, we discharged around 76,873 megaliters of produced water into the environment and re-injected around 53,207 megaliters for secondary oil recovery purposes. These volumes correspond to approximately 59% and 41% of the disposed volume, respectively. The total load of oils and greases in the discarded produced water was approximately 1.3 thousand tons. 

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