Sustainability Report
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Climate resilience, GHG emissions and other gases


The impacts related to the material topic “climate resilience, GHG emissions and other gases” correspond to direct and indirect emissions of greenhouse gases (Scope 1, 2 and 3), the company's risks, and opportunities in the face of climate change and energy transition. It includes management of atmospheric emissions and their impacts on ecosystems, people's health, and the well-being of local communities, as well as the positive impacts of implementing technologies in the process to reduce the intensity of emissions, in the development of products with less environmental impact and mitigation programs and projects.

According to the Sixth Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), climate change will affect all systems, both natural and human, and its economic impacts are expected to grow with global warming. However, specific implications present high levels of uncertainty, depending on factors such as the advancement of carbon neutral technologies, market structures, behavioral changes, and planning for a just transition. 

The impacts on the global supply of energy caused by the conflict in the Ukraine brought security and energy access issues to the center of the discussion. All over the world, the effects of the crisis are reflected in its multiple dimensions: the urgency of transforming energy systems to be more secure, reliable, and resilient, due to the mix between natural gas, oil, coal, and electricity; and food and climate security. 

The last Conference of the Parties (COP), held in Sharm El-Sheik, Egypt, ratified the objectives of the Paris Agreement, and emphasized the need to reduce global GHG emissions in all sectors, in line with the specificities of each country and recognizing the need to support a just transition. The discussion on the reduction in the use of fossil fuels, including oil and gas, also gained momentum, although no agreement was reached.

The oil and gas industry plays an important role in minimizing its operational emissions and delivering less carbon-intensive products, since energy transition scenarios still point to a relevant role for oil products in the coming decades.

In this context, we have the role of generating reliable and efficient energy for an environmentally sustainable world.


Our focus and management

Our approach to climate change is based on three pillars:


Emission performance

Our inventory of atmospheric emissions is prepared in accordance with the guidelines of the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol, developed by the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). For the composition of our inventory, we adopted the source-to-source methodology, known as “bottom-up”. That is, the total inventory is made up of the sum of emissions from each emitting source. In terms of organizational boundaries, we use the operational control approach for our emissions inventory; therefore, emissions related to all assets under our operational control are included. Emissions calculations are based on international references such as the American Petroleum Institute (API) Compendium, the Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), and the calculation tool of the Brazilian GHG Protocol Program.

Our inventory has been published voluntarily since 2002 and is verified annually by a third party, representing our pioneering spirit in GHG management. We are also founding members of the Brazilian GHG Protocol Program and publish our inventory in its Public Emissions Registry, having received the Gold Seal classification in 2022  for the fifth consecutive year, a standard of excellence in data quality and availability.

HISTORY OF ABSOLUTE GHG EMISSIONS [1] (consolidated in millions of tCO2e)


[1]  a) Emissions over the period refer to E&P, refining, fertilizers, petrochemicals, electricity generation, land (pipeline and road) and maritime transport operations, as well as distribution activities in Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, United States, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru. The range of activity types and countries of operation may vary over the years according to our portfolio management.

b) We include direct (Scope 1) and indirect greenhouse gas emissions from the acquisition of electric and/or thermal energy produced by third parties (Scope 2).

c) CO₂ emissions were calculated based on the Global Warming Potential (GWP) values of the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (AR4). In reports prior to 2016, these emissions were calculated considering the GWP values of the IPCC’s Second Assessment Report (SAR); therefore, there are changes in data from previous years.

d) Other possible changes in historical numerical information regarding previous publications of the Sustainability Report, are due to improvements in the atmospheric emissions management system or recommendations resulting from the third party verification process. 

e) Our emissions are verified annually by a third party, with a forecast that data verification from 2022 will be completed by July 2023, and may undergo adjustments until then.

 f) Biogenic CO₂ emissions are not representative in our inventory

g) 2021 value of direct GHG emissions (Scope 1) revised after third-party certification completed in July 2022, from 61.4 million tCO₂e to 61.3 million tCO₂e.


Other significant atmospheric emissions

In addition to GHG emissions, in our inventory we also monitor emissions of other pollutants: sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total hydrocarbons (HCT). 

The concepts described for our GHG inventory, including the source-to-source methodology and operational control approach, as well as the use of SIGEA® software, also apply to the inventory of these pollutants. In addition, the annual third-party verification process also includes these emissions.




Energy consumed

In 2022, we consumed 705 thousand terajoules (TJ) or 328 thousand barrels of oil equivalent per day (boed) of energy, which represents a 24% decrease when compared to the previous year. This reduction is directly related to the significant decrease in thermoelectric generation in 2022, as well as reflecting improvements in efficiency and energy optimization in our processes.








Fuels from non-renewable sources



















TOTAL ENERGY SOLD [2] (consolidated in TJ)
























[1] 2021 values were revised following third party certification completed in July 2022.

a) The consolidation of internal energy consumption follows the approach and standards adopted for our emissions inventory, including the scope of organizational limits for direct and indirect operations.

b) The amounts in mass or volume of fuel consumption consumed are converted to energy considering the values of calorific value by fuel type. Electricity and steam are accounted for based on the theoretical thermal equivalent (0.0036 TJ = 1 MWh).

c) Conservatively, we consider that the total energy consumption reported is of fossil origin, since a possible consumption of energy from renewable sources has a low representation in the total, and to separate these in the report there would be a need to improve its tracking.

d) Reported fuel consumption includes all those necessary for ours various operations, including: generation of electric energy and steam for internal use, heating and cooling currents, transportation, and processes, among others.

e) In previous reports, values of energy in the form of steam consumed by Petrobras were reported. This consumption refers to the amount of steam acquired by our refineries, but which is imported directly from Petrobras' own thermal plants. In other words, there is no consumption of energy in the form of steam from sources outside of Petrobras. In this sense, there is no energy in the form of steam consumed by third parties to be reported. Thus, we excluded the item from the table, also rectifying previous years. 

f) The volume of natural gas and liquid fuels burned through flaring in 2022, totaled 81 thousand TJ and is not considered in the calculation of energy consumption.

[2] We do not sell “heating” and “cooling” energy. The energy sales volumes are those of the Free Trading Environment (ACL) and Regulated Trading Environment (ACR) of the thermoelectric plants we effectively control and are the same as those already reported to the market through Form 20-F reports (filed in the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission - SEC) and Reference Form (filed at the Securities and Exchange Commission - CVM) converted by a factor of 3,600 in the transformation from MWh to Joule. 2021 steam volumes have been revised to account for steam sales to third-party refineries.



Lower carbon products and businesses

The energy transition brings new opportunities to the business by increasing interest in low-carbon products and services. We seek opportunities that contribute to long-term sustainability, diversifying our portfolio of products and businesses. 

We plan to position ourselves as a leading company in the supply of low carbon products, focusing on the BioRefino Program. The BioRefino 2030 Program includes projects for the production of a new generation of fuels that are more modern and sustainable, produced from renewable or residual raw materials. These fuels can be produced by co-processing in our refineries or in dedicated units.


Innovation for energy and decarbonization solutions

Are main R&D initiatives in low carbon are:

  • Energy efficiency
  • CCUS (carbon capture, utilization and geological storage)
  • Subsea CO₂ separation
  • Mitigation of methane emissions
  • Renewable diesel, BioQAV and Biobunker
  • Hydrogen
  • Offshore Wind

In 2022, we invested BRL 43.7 million in R&D in Brazil in the advanced biofuels segment and BRL 20.3 million in renewable energy. Investments were made in wind and solar energy and in BioQav and renewable diesel. Totaling BRL 64 million, the amount represents approximately 1.6% of our total investment.  Our technology deliveries reflect our strategy for the transition to a low carbon economy.

Transpetro has a portfolio of projects for the energy efficiency of ships with an expected investment of BRL 64 million by 2027. These projects foresee an 11% reduction during this period in emissions from burning fossil fuels used on ships. The expected reduction is around 100 thousand tons of CO₂ during this period. 


High quality carbon credits as a complementary strategy

We believe that offsetting emissions can be used as a complementary tool in our decarbonization path. These offsets can be natural, taking advantage of the removal potential involved in restoring and preserving forests, soils, oceans and seaweed, or through technological solutions such as carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) and direct CO₂ capture from the air (DAC). Although our strategy foresees the use of offsets, these initiatives should be thought of as additional contributions to intrinsic mitigation efforts and do not replace society's need to supply energy with lower carbon intensity.


In order to ensure the adoption of best practices in offsetting emissions and their proper inclusion in the company's decarbonization strategy, we actively participate in the Natural Climate Solutions (NCS) group of OGCI and in the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (Ipieca). These are international forums that discuss the best practices for the oil and gas industry, responsible principles for the use of high quality carbon credits, and guides for the management of high carbon potential environments, among other international initiatives related to this topic.


Socio-environmental investment in forests

Our Social Responsibility Policy presents as a guideline investing in socio-environmental programs and projects and, as a principle, overcoming sustainability challenges related to our business, including the transition to a low carbon energy matrix. In this sense, through the Petrobras Socio-environmental Program, we voluntarily supported, in 2022, 22 projects focused on forest recovery and conservation of areas. BRL 73 million will be invested throughout these initiatives, considering contracts that started in 2018 and others that will develop their activities until 2025.

The projects in force in 2022 were active in the direct recovery or conservation of forests and natural areas in the Atlantic Forest, Amazon, Caatinga and Cerrado, contributing to the mitigation of GHG emissions. The estimated net incremental benefit of the work carried out so far by these projects is around 2.3 million tCO₂e, and considers the net removal and emissions avoided by actions that prevent deforestation. 

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